All news

Right response to on-field racism

22 Jun, 2023
AUT sports lecturer Dr Dion Enari who has researched racism in sport said the All White’s display of solidarity against racism was "heart warming".

Sports and language revitalisation

24 May, 2023
AUT research shows that Māori and Pacific sports stars are helping revitalise vulnerable languages, with a genuine surge of language use in elite sport.

New professors and associate professors

17 Nov, 2022
AUT is delighted to announce the promotion of 15 of its academics to the position of Professor and 30 to Associate Professor.

Record ranking for AUT

12 Oct, 2022
AUT has claimed its highest-ever place among New Zealand universities in the latest global rankings.
Screenshot of the video showing people of Kiribati holding a sign that says "we are not drowning, we are fighting!!"

Kiribati Language Week 2022

11 Jul, 2022
We’re pleased to launch our Kiribati episode of AUT’s 2022 Pacific Language Week Video series – AUT Focus on Sustainability.

Mastering delivery of nutrition skills

13 Apr, 2022
Master of Sport, Exercise and Health student Olivia Malamatenios (Ngāpuhi) always aimed to work in health promotion and inspire healthier lifestyles.
Sports Web

Rural communities grow top athletes

07 Apr, 2022
Research on elite New Zealand hockey players from small-town and rural areas has produced new evidence on what can help make a top athlete.
Sandra Mandic

Distance - the key to active transport

23 Mar, 2022
Distance is the strongest determining factor for how teenagers feel about walking or cycling to school according to new research.
Kristen Spencer

Top play – it's all in the eyes

01 Dec, 2021
AUT research at the U21 Hockey World Cup taking place in India aims to improve player decision-making and provide more goal opportunities.
Ameya Kagali

Post-grad realises sports medicine dream

11 Oct, 2021
An AUT degree has enabled Dr Ameya Kagali to realise his dream of working with athletes, serving as chief medical officer to the Indian Paralympics team.
Lauren FYG

Meet sport and rec grad Lauren

11 Oct, 2021
Meet Dr Lauren Keaney, one of the four graduates featured in AUT’s Find Your Greatness Campaign
Mel Johnston and Michael Naylor

Gender gap cut — sports club governance

04 Oct, 2021
Females in Kiwi sports clubs was a focus of this year's National Sport Club Survey, with some positive results, says AUT researcher Dr Mel Johnston.
Sian Clancy and Tony Oldham

AUT partners with Drug Free Sport NZ

30 Sep, 2021
Drug Free Sport NZ has announced a new research partnership with AUT to design and evaluate a world-class education programme on anti-doping.
Patria Hume and Hannah Wyatt

AUT experts solve All Blacks red card

13 Sep, 2021
AUT sport scientists pivotal in red card dismissal for All Black.
WF WG sky tower

AUT climbs up the global rankings

02 Sep, 2021
AUT continues to climb up the global university rankings joining the University of Otago in second place in NZ and the top 250 universities in the world.
Olympics logo

AUT staff behind canoe racing bid

19 Jul, 2021
AUT senior research fellows, Dr Dan Plews and Dr Adam Storey, are helping the New Zealand women's canoe racing team in their bid for Olympic gold.

How body movement changes in pregnancy

05 Jul, 2021
New project to build a greater understanding of the changes pregnant women undergo in body size, shape and balance.
Olympics logo

AUT congratulates NZ Olympians

29 Jun, 2021
As the Education Partner of the New Zealand Olympic Committee (NZOC), AUT was proud to host the event on June 23rd, announcing the flagbearers for the Toky
Professor Fiona Brooks

New Dean for Faculty of HES

08 Jun, 2021
Professor Fiona Brooks has been appointed to the position of Pro Vice-Chancellor and Dean of the Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences.
HRC 2021

HRC Emerging Researchers First Grants

28 May, 2021
AUT picked up one third of Health Research Council Emerging Researchers First Grants this year.
Heat chamber

Feeling the Tokyo Heat

15 Apr, 2021
Top Kiwi athletes training for the Olympics under AUT’s Professor Andrew Kilding and other sport scientists.
Dr Adam and Dr Dan

AUT expertise behind Emirates Team NZ

25 Mar, 2021
AUT researchers Dr Dan Plews and Dr Adam Storey played an integral part in the New Zealand syndicate’s resounding success in retaining the America's Cup.
Professor Jarrod Haar, Professor Patria Hume, Professor Denise Wilson

New Royal Society Te Apārangi Fellows

16 Mar, 2021
Three AUT academics have been elected as Fellows to the Academy of the Royal Society Te Apārangi.

Analysis of Kiwis’ physical activity

10 Feb, 2021
A series of global report cards on physical activity shows New Zealanders increased their level of physical activity by six percent between 2015 and 2019.
AUT student Caitlin Farnham and Matt Walsh, CEO of the Sky Sport Breakers

Breaking into the workforce

24 Nov, 2020
After having her internship delayed due to COVID-19, fourth year student Caitlin Farnham is excited to finally be working with the Sky Sport Breakers.
Girls playing netball

Sport clubs face COVID financial pain

09 Oct, 2020
Sports clubs connected to NZ’s most traditional codes report being “hit hard” by the impact of COVID-19 according to the 2020 National Sport Club Survey.
School sport on TV

School sport on TV takes a toll

29 Sep, 2020
A deal to televise and live stream more secondary school sports has attracted significant debate.
colourful vegetables

Eating healthy is hard on a Covid budget

24 Sep, 2020
More of us are now facing food insecurity - with children, Pacific peoples and Māori the most impacted, writes Emeritus Professor Elaine Rush.
Associate Professor Andrew Gibbons standing in a classroom.

ECE positive for social outcomes

23 Sep, 2020
New research has found that children who attend ECE have fewer emotional difficulties and better peer relations, but are more prone to common illnesses.
Updated the Wellington Phoenix

Wellington Phoenix partnership

17 Sep, 2020
AUT partners with the Wellington Phoenix on sport education
Research funding story

Enhancing urban regeneration

15 Sep, 2020
A research team has secured $7.95m to quantify the societal impact of major urban regeneration projects currently taking place across the country.
Patria Hume

The lasting impacts of rugby injuries

17 Jul, 2020
A UK study of former rugby players shows they continue to suffer a high ‘injury load’ after retirement from the sport.
NZW outcome Eroni Clarke Appointment

AUT study prompts new rugby role

08 Jul, 2020
Former All Black Eroni Clarke is NZ Rugby's first Pasifika Engagement Manager on referral of AUT’s Sport Performance Research Institute NZ (SPRINZ).
Sports equipment

Athletic immunity and sporting events

16 Mar, 2020
AUT PhD candidate Lauren Keaney has researched athletic immunity and strategies to stay well in the leadup to major sporting fixtures.

AUT professor named ISBNPA president

31 Jan, 2020
Professor Erica Hinckson has been elected as President of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.
Emeritus Professor Elaine Rush

Feeding local population vs food exports

30 Jan, 2020
AUT study shows that food insecurity may be linked to nutritional disparity in global food trade, with high-quality exports and nutrient-poor imports.
Professor Andrew Kilding

Five questions: Professor Andrew Kilding

20 Nov, 2019
We asked Professor Andrew Kilding five questions about his research ahead of his Inaugural Professorial Address.
QS stars 2019

AUT gets 5 QS stars in all categories

13 Nov, 2019
AUT has received the maximum five stars for the first time in every category according to the global education analysts QS in their recent results.
AUT Blue Award recipients

Top students awarded AUT Blue Awards

18 Oct, 2019
59 AUT students from disciplines ranging from water polo to film directing celebrated their successes at the 2019 AUT Blue Awards on Thursday 10 October.
Healthy homework works

Healthy homework works

16 Sep, 2019
Researchers investigated the effects of a Healthy Homework implementation in primary school children.
Professor Lesley Ferkins

Five questions: Professor Lesley Ferkins

13 Sep, 2019
We asked Professor Lesley Ferkins five questions about her research ahead of her Inaugural Professorial Address.
THE Rankings Sep 2019

AUT moves up 50 places in world rankings

12 Sep, 2019
AUT is now in the top 1% of world universities and in the top 50 for research citations.
Woolf Fisher AUT scholarship Awards ceremony

19 first in family scholarships awarded

05 Sep, 2019
19 AUT students were awarded Woolf Fisher First-in-Family AUT Scholarships at a celebration event at the AUT South Campus on Thursday 29 August.

01 Jan, 1970

Sport must better support players

05 Aug, 2019
Athlete development must better support Pacific and indigenous players, argues Sierra Keung from AUT’s School of Sport and Recreation.
erica hinckson

Auckland Harbour bridge walking path

24 May, 2019
Getting people active is almost a losing battle. Who remembers the ‘Push Play - 30 minutes a day’ campaign from a decade ago?
62% increase in AUT researchers

62% increase in AUT researchers

30 Apr, 2019
Growing expertise to help New Zealand and the world
They Are Us image - illustration by Ruby Jones

Christchurch tragedy

15 Mar, 2019
The tragic event in Christchurch today devastates us. Our heartfelt thoughts and prayers are with the victims, their friends and families.
Adjunct Professor David Howman

Adjunct Professor on ethics commission

08 Mar, 2019
The International Tennis Federation (ITF) has appointed AUT Adjunct Professor of Sports Leadership and Management David Howman to its Ethics Commission.
AUT Edge Award winners

Gaining skills for the workplace

14 Dec, 2018
Auckland Council are proud to sponsor the overall achievement prize for the AUT Edge Award, an extra-curricular employability award at AUT.
AUT graduates heading overseas as part of the Internz programme

Meet the new AUT Internz

28 Nov, 2018
21 AUT graduates have been hand-picked by major companies including Lululemon, Enviropod, Paramount Recording Studios and Sundance Institute to be internat
AUT's new Professors

New Professors and Associate Professors

01 Nov, 2018
AUT has announced the promotion to Professor of seven senior academics. A further 16 academics have been appointed as Associate Professors.
Balls and rackets on AstroTurf

AUT number one for sport science in NZ

26 Oct, 2018
New rankings place AUT as New Zealand’s top university for sport science.
The Sustainability Taskforce at the Roadmap launch

Minister launches sustainable blueprint

24 Oct, 2018
The Minister for Climate Change, the Hon James Shaw officially launched AUT’s Sustainability Roadmap on Friday 19 October.
WF WG sky tower

THE rankings place AUT in NZ top three

27 Sep, 2018
AUT has significantly improved in global university rankings published today by the Times Higher Education.
Professor Erica Hinckson

Five questions: Professor Erica Hinckson

21 Sep, 2018
We asked Professor of Physical Activity and the Environment Erica Hinckson five questions at the time of her Inaugural Professorial Address.

Women in sports (The Conversation)

20 Sep, 2018
Naomi Osaka has made history as the first Japanese woman to claim a Grand Slam singles title after defeating Serena Williams in the final of the US Open.
AUT students sit in the WG lecture hall

AUT 2019 domestic and international fees

13 Sep, 2018
Tuition fees for new domestic students, and for domestic and international students currently enrolled in a programme will increase in 2019.
Vice Chancellor Derek McCormack

ISBS honours AUT Vice Chancellor

12 Sep, 2018
Vice Chancellor Derek McCormack’s championing of sports science has been honoured with the Inaugural ISBS 2018 Conference President’s Award.
Balls and rackets on AstroTurf

Sports scientists gathering at AUT

06 Sep, 2018
More than 570 sports scientists, athletes, technology partners and teachers will descend upon Auckland for the 2018 ISBS conference.

Global ethics award for anti-doping work

03 Jul, 2018
David Howman, former WADA (World Anti Doping Agency) director and AUT adjunct professor has been conferred with the Ethics in Sports Award.

Young players are hiding sports injuries

07 Jun, 2018
A study on coach and player attitudes to injury in youth sport shows hiding or playing down an injury is common among 11 to 18 year olds.
Grant Schofield and the sugar conspiracy

The Sugar Conspiracy

16 May, 2018
Experts advocate plan to reverse type 2 diabetes epidemic within three years.
Claudia Raven running a half-marathon

21 half marathons before 21

27 Apr, 2018
A Woolf Fisher First-in-Family AUT scholarship student has achieved an incredible feat of running 21 half marathons before her 21st birthday.
Professor Grant Schofield, Dr Caryn Zinn and chef Craig Rodger

New book sheds light on fasting

20 Apr, 2018
We’re fatter and sicker than ever before – and according to a new book, the answer to this modern scourge could lie in the age-old practice of fasting.
Mark Orams_YBE

Kermadec voyage rallies student environmentalists

22 Mar, 2018

Earlier this month a unique envoy of 20 student voyagers and 23 crew members travelled to the Kermadec Islands aboard HMNZS Canterbury.


AUT increases presence in QS subject rankings

01 Mar, 2018

New global rankings show AUT now has 13 subjects ranked, with two of them featuring in the top 50 in the world.

David Howman

New partnership to tackle corruption in sport

22 Nov, 2017

AUT has appointed David Howman as an adjunct professor within the School of Sport & Recreation.

Skycity Breakers announce partnership with AUT

06 Nov, 2017

The SKYCITY Breakers have launched an official relationship with education provider Auckland University of Technology (AUT), in a multi-faceted partnership that sees both parties benefit year-round.

Radilaite Cammock

Māori and Pacific Early Career Academic Programme

02 Sep, 2017

A new generation of Māori and Pacific lecturers is taking up residence at Auckland University of Technology (AUT).

The 2018 Early Career Academic Programme offers up to six Māori and Pacific scholars their first, full-time, permanent appointments as research-active lecturers.


AUT student joins world's young volunteer leaders in Russia

18 Jul, 2017

A trip to Russia has given an AUT Sport and Recreation student a new understanding of the global demand for volunteers.


Working together for healthy communities

09 Jun, 2017

Professor Elaine Rush is calling for the food industry and healthy eating campaigners to work together to create a healthier South Auckland.


AUT student volunteers her way to Russia

11 Apr, 2017

An AUT Sport and Recreation student will represent New Zealand at an international volunteering forum taking place in Russia later this year.


AUT Millennium to mark 15 years of success

07 Apr, 2017

On Tuesday 11 April 2017, AUT Millennium will mark its 15 year anniversary as a centre for excellence in community health, wellness, research and education and sport.


AUT rugby health research goes global

10 Mar, 2017

Investigations into the long-term health of rugby players have been boosted this week by the launch of a Global Rugby Health Research Programme. The programme consists of studies in New Zealand, the UK, Canada and Australia, making it the first of its kind and adding a valuable international perspective to the important issue of player health.

Searching for new ways in sport management

15 Dec, 2016

The estimated value of the sport and recreation sector to the New Zealand economy is $4.9 billion per annum. Making difficult decisions within the complex landscape of this industry is a fundamental role of sport management.

AUT awards top accolade to global sports performance expert

02 Nov, 2016

One of the world’s leading sports performance experts, Professor Patria Hume, was last night announced as this year’s recipient of AUT’s University Medal, for her outstanding contribution to research.

Final mayoral debate delves into Auckland sport and recreation issues

07 Oct, 2016

Six contenders for Auckland Mayor gathered at AUT North Campus on Tuesday 4 October 2016 for the final mayoral debate of the election campaign. The debate focused on sport and recreation, and was hosted by Aktive Auckland and AUT.

AUT Professor honoured for contribution to sport research

12 Aug, 2016

AUT Professor of Strength and Conditioning, Michael McGuigan, has been named 2016 William J. Kraemer Outstanding Sport Scientist of the Year.

Budding rugby star receives 2016 AUT-Ponsonby Rugby Club scholarship

02 Jun, 2016

Auckland University of Technology has partnered with Ponsonby Rugby Club through a new annual fee-paying scholarship to support the educational development of some of New Zealand’s talented young rugby players.


Elite hall of fame welcomes AUT academic

17 Nov, 2015

AUT Associate Professor, Erica Hinckson, has been inducted into the University of California, San Diego’s  (UCSD’s) Athletics Hall of Fame. The former UCSD student was recognised for her significant achievements in track and field, and her exceptional contribution to the heritage of UCSD Athletics.


Dark side to pounding the pavement

23 Jun, 2015

By Kelly Sheerin – Manager of the Running and Cycling Clinic, an AUT Sports Performance Clinic based at AUT Millennium.


Sport as a tool for social change - South Campus sport development ‘Think Tank’

23 Jun, 2015

Local Manukau sport industry influencers gathered at the AUT South campus in Manukau recently to discuss how sports can be used as a tool for social change and development in South Auckland.


AUT University’s South Campus hosts Northern Mystics and AUT Netball Schools Clinic

13 Jun, 2014

Players from the Northern Mystics Netball Team, AUT University (AUT) sport and recreation lecturers and students recently took part in a schools netball clinic organised by AUT’s South Campus.

Research explores the legacy of RWC 2011 volunteering

05 Dec, 2013

Many Rugby World Cup 2011 volunteers delivered on their intentions to do more volunteer work after an outstanding experience with the event, a longitudinal study has found.

World champions win at AUT sport awards

14 Oct, 2013

Two world champion Rugby Sevens players and a NZ touch rugby representative have taken the major awards at AUT’s annual Blues Awards. Recognising sporting excellence, the Blues awards were presented to 78 students at a formal dinner on Friday 11 October at the Sir Paul Reeves building in Auckland’s city campus.

SPRINZ help Emirates Team NZ with fitness goals

19 Aug, 2013

Bachelor of Sport and Recreation student Hubert Woroniecki is in San Francisco to help Emirates Team New Zealand bring back the America’s Cup.

After helping the team with a specific research project as part of his third year placement at AUT’s Sport Performance Research in New Zealand (SPRINZ), Woroniecki is now considered a team member says Emirates Team NZ physical trainer David Slyfield.

Ground-breaking moment at AUT Millennium

21 Feb, 2013

Minister of Sport Murray McCully said last Wednesday was a very important day for the Government at the official commencement of construction of the National Aquatic Centre at AUT Millennium.

Pole position at Mission Bay

24 Jan, 2013

Olympic athletes will be competing alongside frisbee throwers and dog walkers this Saturday 5.30pm at Mission Bay Beach. Olympic decathlete and former AUT student Brent Newdick, who placed 12th at last year’s London Olympics, will be the star attraction when the Summer Vault pole vault competition continues this weekend.

Surf science

20 Jan, 2013

Top surfers have a reputation for being laid-back beachgoers who spend most of their time lying on the sand.


Lecturer of the year wins bodybuilding gold

30 Nov, 2012

Ruth Naidoo has had a big couple of weeks. The SPRINZ staff member based at AUT Millennium won two world bodybuilding titles in Reno, Nevada and then took out lecturer of the year at the New Zealand Fitness Awards on Saturday night.


Buck fronts rugby study

24 Nov, 2012

A team of sports medicine experts have done what the All Blacks selectors refused to do and have brought back Buck.


All Black hosts free event at North Shore Campus

21 Nov, 2012

All Black great Buck Shelford will be at North Shore campus next week telling Kiwi men to stop being so staunch. Coinciding with the end of Movember, the former All Black captain will be at AUT 27 November to discuss how men can live longer, healthier lives.


Royals draw big crowd

13 Nov, 2012

Prince Charles met some of New Zealand’s top athletes and an enthusiastic crowd at AUT Millennium on Monday 12 November.   Elbows and shoulders were being used by some to catch a glimpse of the future King of New Zealand and his wife the Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla Parker-Bowles.


Child's play helps combat obesity

09 Nov, 2012

Research published today in the New Zealand Medical Journal suggests children can benefit more from active play compared to structured exercise.


Prince Charles to visit AUT Millennium

08 Nov, 2012

The first in line to the British throne and future New Zealand Head of State will be at AUT Millennium on Monday 12 November to meet top Kiwi athletes and AUT sport scientists.


World record at AUT Millennium open day

06 Nov, 2012

Olympic champion Danyon Loader was part of a team that beat a swimming world record at the ActivePost  open day at AUT Millennium on Sunday 4 November. The 1996 double Olympic gold medalist in the 200m and 400m freestyle helped the North Shore Swimming Club to smash the world record for the 100 x 25 metres. The club, anchored by Olympian Lauren Boyle, recorded a time of 21minutes 22 seconds which is more than eight minutes quicker than the previous mark set by Swedish club Kristianstad SLS in 1992.


Olympian wins Blues Award

26 Oct, 2012

Bachelor of Arts student and Football Ferns star Annalie Longo was the big winner at the AUT Blues Awards last week. Held at the North Shore Campus on Wednesday 17 October, the Blues Awards is a celebration of AUT students’ sporting achievements. And with many students representing New Zealand in a variety of sports all over the world, picking the winners was not easy.


Experts call for action on child obesity

25 Oct, 2012

Former prime minster Jenny Shipley said the public had to be taken along in the battle against child obesity during a conference held in Auckland from 18-20 October.


Bolt from the blue

15 Oct, 2012

The fastest runner on the planet told assembled journalists at AUT Millennium that he will be defending his 100m and 200m Olympic titles in four years.


Bolting into AUT Millennium

15 Oct, 2012

The fastest runner of all time will be at AUT Millennium this afternoon to coach some of New Zealand’s best sprinters.


AUT sport labs open day

21 Sep, 2012

On Auckland’s North Shore is one of the top three sport facilities of its kind in the world. That was how Dr Jacques Rogge, the president of the International Olympic Committee, described AUT Millennium at an official opening late last year.
The public has an opportunity to see the SPRINZ Clinics in action and get a better understanding of how they too can benefit from the world-class facility at an open day this Saturday.


Graduate's golden goal

14 Aug, 2012

AUT graduate Cameron Leslie is preparing to defend his Paralympic title at this year’s London Paralympics in the 150 metre individual medley.


IRB study of sports injuries

03 Aug, 2012

AUT’s Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ) are joining forces with other experts from around the world in an effort to better understand the long-term physical and psychological effects of rugby injuries.


PM opens AUT’s new campus

03 Jun, 2012

Prime Minister John Key confirmed his commitment to sport science at the official opening of the AUT Millennium Campus on Friday 29 June.


Professor heading to London as Olympic coach

03 May, 2012

An AUT University professor has been named as a coach in the London 2012 New Zealand Olympic Sailing Team.

body composition archive in clinic

AUT leads world body composition archive

09 Apr, 2012

A new clinic at AUT Millennium Campus will lead a unique global network of anthropometrists providing data enabling elite athletes to know more about their body composition than ever before.

The J.E. Lindsay Carter Kinanthropometry Clinic (JELC) and Archive was officially opened at the SPRINZ laboratory Friday 30 March by Professor Lindsay Carter from San Diego University.


How to motivate world champs

23 Nov, 2011

All Blacks strength and conditioning coach, Dr Nic Gill, explained to delegates at an AUT conference that motivation was not a major challenge for the recently crowned World Champions.


Top inventor a big HIT

07 Nov, 2011

The 2007 winner of TIME magazine Inventor of the Year was a speaker at the Sport Kinesiology, Injury Prevention and Performance Seminar held at the AUT Millennium Campus on Thursday 20 October.


IOC president opens training centre at AUT Millennium Campus

21 Oct, 2011

IOC President Dr Jacques Rogge and the Minister for Sport and Recreation Hon. Murray McCully will open the National Training Centre for high performance athletes at AUT Millennium Campus today Friday, 21 October, 2011.


Hockey player and Paralympian take out AUT’s top sport awards

19 Oct, 2011

AUT University’s best sportsmen and women were recognised on Friday 14 October at the annual Blues Awards at the North Shore Campus. A total of 46 Blues Awards were presented on the night with the calibre of recipients reflected in the night’s big winners.

Success of Project Energize confirmed

27 Jul, 2011

AUT research, led by Professor of Nutrition, Elaine Rush, indicates thousands of Waikato school children are fitter and healthier as a result of a regional health programme.

AUT Bachelor of Dance students will perform award-winning works at Showcase 2009

Award-winning performances in Showcase 2009

30 Oct, 2009

Showcase '09 will see AUT’s third-year Bachelor of Dance students performing the award-winning 'Dancing with Difference' which took first prize at this year's 'Viva Eclectika' competition.

AUT's Brent Newdick competing in the 2006 Commonwealth Games

Football Ferns, Blacksticks, Olympians among AUT University’s top sports stars

13 Oct, 2009

AUT University’s best athletes were recognised at the 2009 AUT Sports Awards on Friday October 2 with Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year going to gymnast Patrick Peng and footballer Hayley Moorwood.

Bruce Meyer, sport development manager at AUT says that these two awards take into account academic and athletic performance and the students’ contribution to AUT’s sports and community.

Dr Ken Quarrie

Kiwi research finds tackling key to injury for rugby players

24 Aug, 2009

The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, accounting for up to 58 percent of all game-related injuries, according to research carried out by AUT University PhD researcher Ken Quarrie in conjunction with the New Zealand Rugby Union (NZRU) and ACC.