Dr Tim Young

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Research Fellow

Email: tim.young@aut.ac.nz

ORCID: ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3294-2866

Links to relevant web pages:

Academic appointments:

  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Auckland University of Technology (2017 - 2019)
  • Research Assistant, Auckland University of Technology (2016 - 2017)

Qualifications:

  • PhD, Auckland University of Technology
  • MSc, Auckland University of Technology
  • BSc, Auckland University of Technology
  • Marine Mammal Medic Certification, Project Jonah
  • Open Water Diver, PADI

Overview:

I work across broad disciplines in aquatic biology, marine ecology, aquaculture and fisheries, biochemistry, immunology, molecular biology, and ecotoxicology. Particular research foci include characterisation of molecular mechanisms involved during embryonic and larval development of marine invertebrates, and in response to environmental influences e.g. ocean acidification, pollution, pathogens. Gaining a better understanding of biochemical regulatory networks involved during early development and in response to environmental change is critical for the successful management of our oceans and the organisms which inhabit them. Other research interests include characterising mechanisms of disease and resistance in marine organisms, development of new tools for assessing fish/shellfish health, and protecting, restoring and promoting sustainable use of marine ecosystems.

Research interests:

Integrated 'omics in aquatic research
Metabolic regulation of metal toxicity during marine mussel embryogenesis
Effects of ocean acidification on mussel larval development
Molecular mechanisms of Vibriosis disease in mussels and abalone
Pathophysiological host responses of oysters to OsHV-1 virus: Mechanisms of resilience
Understanding and enhancing feed conversion efficiency in fish
Developing protocols to assess aquatic organism health via flow cytometry

Fields of research:

  • Biostatistics
  • Immunological and Bioassay Methods
  • Biological Oceanography
  • Biochemistry and Cell Biology
  • Bioinformatics
  • Systems Biology
  • Marine and Estuarine Ecology (Incl. Marine Ichthyology)
  • Animal Developmental and Reproductive Biology
  • Global Change Biology
  • Aquaculture
  • Environmental Marine Biotechnology

Research outputs:

Journal articles

  • Rusk, A. B., Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., Watts, E., & Adams, S. L. (2020). Development stage of cryopreserved mussel (Perna canaliculus) larvae influences post-thaw impact on shell formation, organogenesis, neurogenesis, feeding ability and survival. Cryobiology. doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2020.01.021

  • Lulijwa, R., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., Burdass, M., Meyer, J., Venter, L., & Young, T. (2020). Metabolic and immune responses of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts to a short-term Poly (I:C) challenge. Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/jfb.14266

  • Ragg, N. L. C., Gale, S. L., Le, D. V., Hawes, N. A., Burritt, D. J., Young, T., . . . King, N. (2019). The effects of aragonite saturation state on hatchery-reared larvae of the Greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus. Journal of Shellfish Research, 38(3), 779-793. doi:10.2983/035.038.0328

  • Lulijwa, R., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., Meyer, J., & Young, T. (2019). Advances in salmonid fish immunology: A review of methods and techniques for lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood leucocyte isolation and application. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 95, 44-80. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2019.10.006

  • Lulijwa, R., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., Burdass, M., Venter, L., & Young, T. (2019). In vitro immune response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 94, 190-198. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2019.09.003

  • Young, T., Walker, S. P., Alfaro, A. C., Fletcher, L. M., Murray, J. S., Lulijwa, R., & Symonds, J. (2019). Impact of acute handling stress, anaesthesia, and euthanasia on fish plasma biochemistry: Implications for veterinary screening and metabolomic sampling. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 45(4), 1485-1494. doi:10.1007/s10695-019-00669-8

  • Jarvis, R. M., & Young, T. (2019). Key research priorities for the future of marine science in New Zealand. Marine Policy, 106, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103539

  • Nguyen, T. V., Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., Green, S., Zarate, E., & Merien, F. (2019). Itaconic acid inhibits growth of a pathogenic marine Vibrio strain: A metabolomics approach. Scientific Reports, 9(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42315-6

  • Rosani, U., Young, T., Bai, C. M., Alfaro, A. C., & Venier, P. (2019). Dual analysis of virus-host interactions: The case of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 and the cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas. Evolutionary Bioinformatics, 15. doi:10.1177/1176934319831305

  • Lulijwa, R., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., Burdass, M., Young, T., Meyer, J., . . . Trembath, C. (2019). Characterisation of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) blood and validation of flow cytometry cell count and viability assay kit. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 88, 179-188. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2019.02.059

  • Nguyen, T. V., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., & Young, T. (2019). In vitro study of apoptosis in mussel (Perna canaliculus) haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide. Aquaculture, 503, 8-15. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.12.086

  • Nguyen, T. V., Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., & Merien, F. (2019). Tissue-specific immune responses to Vibrio sp. infection in mussels (Perna canaliculus): A metabolomics approach. Aquaculture, 500, 118-125. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.09.061

  • Wang, L., Han, T. L., Luo, X., Li, S., Young, T., Chen, C., . . . Qi, H. (2018). Metabolic biomarkers of monochorionic twins complicated with selective intrauterine growth restriction in cord plasma and placental tissue. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-13. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33788-y

  • Grandiosa, R., Merien, F., Young, T., Nguyen, T., Gutierrez, N., Kitundu, E., & Alfaro, A. (2018). Multi-strain probiotics enhance immune responsiveness and alters metabolic profiles in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 82. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2018.08.034

  • Nguyen, T. V., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., Young, T., & Grandiosa, R. (2018). Metabolic and immunological responses of male and female new Zealand Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) infected with Vibrio sp.. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 157, 80-89. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2018.08.008

  • Nguyen, T. V., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., Lulijwa, R., & Young, T. (2018). Copper-induced immunomodulation in mussel (Perna canaliculus) haemocytes. Metallomics, 10(7). doi:10.1039/c8mt00092a

  • Grandiosa, R., Bouwman, M. L., Young, T., Mérien, F., & Alfaro, A. C. (2018). Effect of antiaggregants on the in vitro viability, cell count and stability of abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 78. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2018.04.038

  • Nguyen, T. V., Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., Ravi, S., & Merien, F. (2018). Metabolomics study of immune responses of New Zealand Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) infected with Pathogenic Vibrio sp.. Marine Biotechnology, 20(3). doi:10.1007/s10126-018-9804-x

  • Le, D. V., Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., Ragg, N. L. C., Hilton, Z., Watts, E., & King, N. (2018). Practical fertilization procedure and embryonic development of the New Zealand geoduck clam (Panopea zelandica). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 98(3). doi:10.1017/S0025315416001685

  • Rusk, A. B., Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., Watts, E., & Adams, S. L. (2017). Investigation of early mussel (Perna canaliculus) development using histology, SEM imaging, immunochemistry and confocal microscopy. Marine Biology Research, 13(3). doi:10.1080/17451000.2016.1257812

  • Young, T., Kesarcodi-Watson, A., Alfaro, A. C., Merien, F., Nguyen, T. V., Mae, H., . . . Villas-Bôas, S. (2017). Differential expression of novel metabolic and immunological biomarkers in oysters challenged with a virulent strain of OsHV-1. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 73. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2017.03.025

  • Le, D. V., Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., Watts, E., & King, N. (2017). Effect of neuroactive compounds on larval metamorphosis of New Zealand geoduck (Panopea zelandica). Aquaculture Research, 48(6). doi:10.1111/are.13139

  • Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., & Villas-Bôas, S. G. (2016). Metabolic profiling of mussel larvae: Effect of handling and culture conditions. Aquaculture International, 24(3). doi:10.1007/s10499-015-9945-0

  • Young, T., & Alfaro, A. C. (2016). Metabolomic strategies for aquaculture research: A primer. Reviews in Aquaculture, 10(1). doi:10.1111/raq.12146

  • Alfaro, A. C., & Young, T. (2016). Showcasing metabolomic applications in aquaculture: A review. Reviews in Aquaculture, 10(1). doi:10.1111/raq.12152

  • Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., & Villas-Bôas, S. (2015). Identification of candidate biomarkers for quality assessment of hatchery-reared mussel larvae via GC/MS-based metabolomics. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 49(1). doi:10.1080/00288330.2014.958504

  • Young, T., & Alfaro, A. C. (2015). Metabolomics: An innovative and powerful tool that will revolutionize aquaculture. World Aqauculture, 46(4).

  • Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., Sánchez-Lazo, C., & Robertson, J. (2015). Putative involvement of adrenergic receptors in regulation of mussel (Perna canaliculus) larval settlement. Marine Biology Research, 11(6). doi:10.1080/17451000.2014.979833

  • Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., & Bowden, K. (2014). Neurophysiological control of swimming behaviour, attachment and metamorphosis in black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) larvae. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 48(3). doi:10.1080/00288330.2014.918886

  • Sánchez-Lazo, C., Martínez-Pita, I., Young, T., & Alfaro, A. C. (2012). Induction of settlement in larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using neuroactive compounds. Aquaculture, 344-349. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.03.021

  • Sanchez Lazo, C., Martinez Pita, I., Young, T., & Alfaro, A. C. (2012). Corrigendum to [Induction of settlement in larvae of the musssel Mytilus galloprovincialis using neuroactive compounds, Aquaculture 2012, 344-349, 210-215]. Aquaculture.

  • Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., & Robertson, J. (2011). Effect of neuroactive compounds on the settlement of mussel (Perna canaliculus) larvae. Acquaculture, 319(1-2).

  • Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., & Ganesan, A. M. (2011). Regulatory effects of mussel (Aulacomya maoriana Iredale 1915) larval settlement by neuroactive compounds, amino acids and bacterial biofilms. Aquaculture, 322-323. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz/

Conference contributions

  • Jarvis, R., & Young, T. (2018). Identifying emerging issues and priorities for the future of New Zealand marine science. In New Zealand Marine Science Society (NZMSS) Conference: Weaving the strands. Napier: New Zealand Marine Science Society (NZMSS). Retrieved from http://www.nzmss2018.co.nz/

  • Grandiosa, R., Merien, F., Young, T., Nguyen, T., Guiterrez, N., & Alfaro, A. (2017). Multi-strain probiotics enhances immune capacity and alters metabolic profiles in the New Zealand black footed abalone (Haliotis iris). In NZMSS 2017 Conference Handbook. Christchurch.

  • Young, T., Kesarcodi-Watson, A., Alfaro, A., Merien, F., Dung, L., Mae, H., . . . Villa-Boas, S. (2016). Disturbance of larval host metabolism in response to OsHV-1 virus exposes novel immunological biomarkers.. In New Zealand Marine Sciences Society and Australian Marine Sciences Association Joint 2016 Conference. Wellington.

  • Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., Villas-Boas, S., & Gale, S. L. (2015). Shifting paradigms towards non-hypothesis driven research in marine molecular biology. In New Zealand Marine Sciences Society* Oceania Chondrichthyan Society 2015. Auckland.

  • Young, T., Alfaro, A. C., & Villas-Bôas, S. (2014). Metabolomic applications in marine invertebrate development and aquaculture. In New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Annual Conference: Shaping our marine future. Nelson.

  • Alfaro, A. C., Young, T., Ganesan, A., Rusk, A., Dung, L. V., De Jong, N., . . . Pook, C. (2013). Multi-disciplinary approach to study larval development. In Aquatic Science at the Interface Conference 2013. Hamilton.

Reports

  • Young, T., & Alfaro, A. C. (2012). Mollusc Immunology Methods: Standard Operating Procedures. Auckland, New Zealand: AUT University.

Other outputs

  • Jarvis, R., & Young, T. (2019). Study identifies nine research priorities to better understand NZ’s vast marine area. In The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/

  • Young, T., & Alfaro, A. C. (2015). Metabolomics approaches to improve mussel larval production.