Dr Kat Bolstad

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Senior Lecturer; Lab Leader, AUT Lab for Cephalopod Ecology & Systematics (ALCES)

Phone: +649 921 9999 Ext. 6590

Email: kbolstad@aut.ac.nz

Physical Address:

AUT North Shore Campus, 90 Akoranga Drive, Northcote, Auckland 0627, New Zealand

Postal Address:

Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, AUT University, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

Teaching Areas:

Dr Bolstad leads a postgraduate research group (the AUT Lab for Cephalopod Ecology & Systematics / ALCES) focusing on squid systematics and ecology. She also leads and teaches on undergraduate papers Health & The Environment (HEAL507), Biodiversity (ENVS501), and Plant & Animal Taxonomy (ENVS624). She works across the schools of Science and Interprofessional Health Studies.

Research Areas:

Dr Bolstad's research on cephalopods investigates systematics, ecology, biodiversity, and vision, primarily of deep-sea squids.

Research Summary:

Her doctoral thesis, a global revision of the squid family Onychoteuthidae (available here), was published as a monograph in Zootaxa in 2010.  She has also published on aspects of trophic ecology, reproduction, diversity, genetics, ontogeny and vision in this and other squid families.

Current Research Projects:


  • Systematics of oegopsid squids.
  • Retinal structure and response to light in deep-sea squids.
  • Ecology and biodiversity of deep-sea squids in New Zealand waters.

Current postgraduate projects:

  • Lischka, A.B. (PhD candidate) Ecotoxicology and heavy metal accumulation in oegopsid squids.
  • Santos, J. (MSc student) Taxonomy of the 'bottletail squid' genus Sepioloidea in New Zealand watrers.
  • Kelly, J.T. (PhD candidate) Systematics of the squid family Octopoteuthidae.

Recently completed postgraduate projects:


For full citation list, see Kat's Google Scholar profile. (* indicates students under my supervision)

  • Remeslo, A., Yukhov, V., Bolstad, K., Laptikhovsky, V. (2019). Distribution and biology of the colossal squid, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni: New data from depredation in toothfish fisheries and sperm whale stomach contents. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 121–127.
  • Lischka, A.*, Pook, C., Bolstad, K., Pannell, J., Braid, H.* (2019). Metal composition of arrow squid (Nototodarus sloanii Gray, 1849) from the Chatham Rise, New Zealand: Implications for human consumption. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(12): 11975–11987.
  • Braid, H.*, Bolstad, K. S. R. (2019). Cephalopod biodiversity of the Kermadec Islands: Implications for conservation and some future taxonomic priorities. Invertebrate Systematics, 33(2), 402–425.
  • Northern, T. J.*, Smith, A. M., McKinnon, J. F., Bolstad, K. S. R. (2019). Trace elements in the beaks of greater hooked squid Onykia ingens: opportunities for environmental tracing. Molluscan Research, 39(1), 29–34.
  • Bolstad, K. S., Braid, H. E.*, Strugnell, J. M., Lindgren, A. R., Lischka, A.*, Kubodera, T., ... Labiaga, A. R. (2018). A mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Onychoteuthidae Gray, 1847 (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 128, 88–97.
  • Lischka, A.*, Braid, H. E.*, Bolstad, K. S. R. (2018). DNA barcoding from the hooked squids (Cephalopods: Onychoteuthidae) of the Sargasso Sea. Hydrobiologia, 808(1), 107–113.
  • Rosa, R., Lopes, V. M., Guerreiro, M., Bolstad, K., Xavier, J. C. (2017). Biology and ecology of the world’s largest invertebrate, the colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni): a short review. Polar Biology, 40(9), 1871–1883.
  • Braid, H. E.*, Kubodera, T., Bolstad, K. S. (2017). One step closer to understanding the chiroteuthid families in the Pacific Ocean. Marine Biodiversity, 47(3), 1–25.
  • Laptikhovsky, V., Boersch-Supan, P., Bolstad, K., Kemp, K., Letessier, T., Rogers, A. D. (2017). Cephalopods of the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge: A hotspot of biological diversity and absence of endemism. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 136, 98–107.
  • Bolstad, K. S. R., Perez, J. A. A., Strugnell, J. M., Vidal, E. A. G. (2015). Cranchiids of the South Atlantic Mid-Oceanic Ridge: Results from the first southern MAR-ECO expedition. Journal of Natural History, 49(21–24), 1351–1371.
  • Braid, H. E.*, Bolstad, K. (2015). Ecology and systematics of New Zealand deep-sea squids. GENOME, 58, 199–200.
  • Evans, A. B.*, Acosta, M. L., Bolstad, K. (2015). Retinal development and ommin pigment in the cranchiid squid Teuthowenia pellucida (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0123453.
  • Braid, H. E.*, Bolstad, K. (2015). Systematics of the family Mastigoteuthidae (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 42(3), 187–256.
  • Braid, H. E.*, & Bolstad, K. S. (2014). Feeding ecology of the largest mastigoteuthid squid species, Idioteuthis cordiformis (Cephalopoda, Mastigoteuthidae). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 515, 275-279.
  • Bolstad, K. S. R., Perez, J. A. A., Strugnell, J. M., & Vidal, E. A. G. (2014). Cranchiids of the South Atlantic Mid-Oceanic Ridge: results from the first southern MAR-ECO expedition.  Journal of Natural History.  doi 10.1080/00222933.2013.867375
  • Hoving, H. J. H., Perez, J. A. A., Bolstad, K. S. R., Braid, H. E., Evans, A. B., Fuchs, D., … Xavier, J. C. C.  (2014). The study of deep-sea cephalopods.  Advances in Marine Biology 67, 235-359.
  • Evans, A. B.*, & Bolstad, K. S. R. (2014). Ontogeny of the deep-sea cranchiid squid Teuthowenia pellucida from New Zealand waters. Journal of Natural History.
  • Braid, H. E*., McBride, P. D., & Bolstad, K. S. (2013). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the squid family Mastigoteuthidae (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) based on three mitochondrial genes. Hydrobiologia, 725(1), 145-164. doi  10.1007/s10750-013-1775-3
  • Bolstad, K. S. R., & Hoving, H. J. T. (2011). Spermatangium structure and implantation sites in onychoteuthid squids (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Marine Biodiversity Records, 4(e5).
  • Bolstad, K. S. R. (2010) Systematics of the Onychoteuthidae Gray, 1847 (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Zootaxa 2696, 1-186.
  • Hoving, H. J. T., Lipinski, M. R., Videler, J. J., & Bolstad, K. S. R. (2010). Sperm storage in females of the deep-sea squid Taningia danae Joubin, 1931 (Oegopsida: Octopoteuthidae. Marine Biology, 157(2), 393-400.
  • Bolstad, K. S. (2008). A global revision of the hooked squids, family Onychoteuthidae. The Malacologist, 50, 17-18.
  • Laptikhovsky, V., Arkhipkin, A., & Bolstad, K. S. (2008). A second species of the squid genus Kondakovia (Cephalopoda: Onychoteuthidae) from the sub-Antarctic. Polar Biology, 32(1), 21-26. doi:10.1007/s00300-008-0497-x
  • Bolstad, K. S. (2008). Two new species and a review of the squid genus Onychoteuthis Lichtenstein, 1818 (Oegopsida: Onychoteuthidae) from the Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science, 83, 481-529.
  • Bolstad, K. (2007). Systematics and distribution of the New Zealand onychoteuthid fauna (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida), including a new species, Notonykia nesisi sp. nov. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 17, 305-335.
  • O'Shea, S., Jackson, G., & Bolstad, K. (2007). The nomenclatural status, ontogeny and morphology of Pholidoteuthis massyae (Pfeffer, 1912) new comb (Cephalopoda: Pholidoteuthidae). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 17, 425-435.
  • Bolstad, K. S. (2006). Sexual dimorphism in the beaks of Moroteuthis ingens Smith, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida: Onychoteuthidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 33(4), 317-327.
  • O'Shea, S., Bolstad, K., & Ritchie, P. A. (2004). First records of egg masses of Nototodarus gouldi McCoy, 1888 (Mollusca: Cephalapoda: Ommastrephidae), with comments on egg-mass susceptibility to damage by fisheries trawl. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 31, 161-166.
  • Bolstad, K., & O'Shea, S. (2004). Gut contents of a giant squid Architeuthis dux (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 31, 15-21.
  • Bolstad, K. S., & Kensley, B. (1999). Two new species of Hansenium (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota) from Madang, Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 112(1), 164-174.
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