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Abstracts

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Paper Author(s) Paper Title
01-2003 SIMON MOWATT and HOWARD COX Innovation Networks and the Development of Consumer-Driven ICT-Based Management Systems
  This paper examines the use of consumer-driven innovation networks within the UK food retailing industry using qualitative interview-based research analysed within an economic framework. This perspective revealed that by exploiting information gathered directly from their customers at point-of-sale and data mining, supermarkets are able to identify consumer preferences and co-ordinate new product development via innovation networks. This has been made possible through their information control of the supply-chain established through the use of transparent inventory management systems. As a result, supermarkets e-business systems have established new competitive processes in the UK food processing and retailing industry and are an example of consumer-driven innovation networks. The informant-based qualitative approach also revealed that trust-based transacting relationships operated differently to those previously described in the literature.
02-2003 BILL DOOLIN, BOB MCQUEEN and MARK WATTON Internet Strategies for Established Retailers:Five Case Studies from New Zealand  

This paper reports the findings of research on the strategic responses of established retailers to the challenges and opportunities offered by the Internet and the development of electronic commerce. The paper identifies a range of factors that influence the adoption of Internet retailing and presents a simple framework for categorising Internet strategies based on five case studies of New Zealand retailing companies.
03-2003 ROGER BAXTER and SHEELAGH MATEAR Measuring Intangible Value in Business to Business Buyer-Seller Relationships: An Intellectual Capital Perspective

The value in a firm's relationships needs to be developed and managed carefully and marketing managers need to be able to quantify this value in order to manage it and in order to argue for their share of the firm’s resources to develop it. This paper describes a study that aims to test a hypothesised model of the intangible part of the value that is manifested in buyer-seller relationships and a set of scales to measure it. The focus of the research, which synthesises a framework from the intellectual capital literature, is on business to business situations and on the value of the relationship to the seller, rather than to the buyer. In the study described, data from a survey of relevant managers were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling techniques to test the hypotheses.
04-2003 HOWARD COX and SIMON MOWATT Technology, Organisation and Innovation: The Historical Development of the UK Magazine Industry

For most of the twentieth century, the publishing of magazines was technologically and organisationally embedded within the printing industry. By charting the origins and evolution of Britain’s principal magazine publisher, IPC, this paper demonstrates how these organisational inflexibilities served to constrain new product development and promoted a competitive regime based upon mass production coupled with a low pricing strategy founded on cheap weekly magazines. During the 1980s, however, radical changes in working practices within the printing industry, stemming from the political reforms to trade union power, paved the way for a revolution in publishing technology. The introduction of desktop publishing (DTP) packages after 1985 thus heralded a new competitive phase in the magazine industry, promoting a much greater emphasis on innovation as a competitive weapon and supporting enhanced forms of product differentiation and organisational flexibility.
05-2003 CHRISTOPHER BOGGS, BRETT COLLINS and MARTIE-LOUISE VERREYNNE Examining the Effects of Referent Power on Intrinsic Motivation in Organisations: A Self-Concept Based Approach

Using a self-concept based approach we examine the literature for evidence of effects, induced by referent power, on the intrinsic motivation of employees. We propose that the subject of a referent power relationship will be intrinsically motivated to affirm, or enhance their self-concept, in relation to characteristics of a referent agent. Hypotheses were developed and tested using data from 311 employees of a large consulting firm. We found empirical support for the view that referent motivation leads to behaviour in individuals that is in accord with characteristics of a referent agent, with this behaviour resulting in affirmation or enhancement of their self-concept.
06-2003 MARK GLYNN,JUDY MOTION and RODERICK BRODIE Retailers’ Perceived Value of Manufacturers’ Brands

Most of the theoretical and empirical research into brand equity has focused on business to consumer relationships and the value created with end-customers (consumer-based brand equity). Little is known of the processes where brands create value in business-to-business relationships such as in manufacturer-retailer relationships. This article reports the qualitative findings of a research project into this under-researched area investigating the role of brands in business-to-business relationships. The results show that manufacturers’ brand equity is linked to the value of the brand performance as perceived by the retailer. This perceived value has an impact on key relationship variables such as commitment, trust, dependence and cooperation. To obtain the optimal value from the brand, both manufacturers and retailers need to manage these sources of brand asset value within the business relationship. Although large brands have considerable influence in the relationship, smaller brands can also offer value to retailers and play an important part in the management of product categories within the store. A conceptual model is developed that shows the impact of the sources of brand value within a business-to-business relationship.
07-2003 DERYL NORTHCOTT and LI-CHENG CHANG The Use of Performance Measurement as an Accountability Mechanism: A Case Study in the UK National Health Service

The U.K. Labour government has recently developed the NHS Plan, which specifies long-term objectives and strategies for the development of the National Health Service. Along with the NHS Plan has come the development of Service and Financial Frameworks (SaFFs). The aim of SaFFs is to overcome the potential agency problem that exists between government and NHS organizations (Heymann, 1988) by enhancing the accountability of local NHS organizations for delivering the outcomes required by the NHS Plan.

This study uses a case study to explore how the SaFF has been applied as a new NHS performance measurement tool and identifies issues affecting the usefulness of the SaFF as an accountability mechanism. The findings illustrate how the introduction of SaFFs has allowed the government to introduce additional non-financial/process performance indicators and tougher performance monitoring processes. This study also identifies issues related to the choice, relevance and informational quality of performance indicators. The findings suggest that, given the shortcomings in the SaFF’s performance measurement contributions, a key early aim of this new accountability mechanism may be to serve central government’s need to deliver a political message to the public. If the SaFF is to develop into an effective accountability mechanism and support the key aims of the NHS Plan, careful selection of performance indicators and adequate information systems will be crucial.
08-2003 ROY SMOLLAN and JONATHAN MATHENY Emotions Experienced Through Organisational Events: An Exploratory Framework of Perceived Justice and Outcomes

Organisational events trigger a range of emotional experiences for employees. This paper provides a two-by-two matrix that places an inclusive set of emotions in a grid of perceived outcomes and perceived justice. In so doing, it highlights emotional intelligence as an important course of further study regarding organisational change events. Specifically, it provides a series of propositions about the likely emotions arising from the combination of perceived outcomes and justice and the individual differences in these responses to organisational change events.
09-2003 ROBIN H. LUO and L. CHRISTOPHER PLANTIER The Persistence of NZ Dollar Misalignments Relative to Purchasing Power Parity

This paper examines the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) relationship between the New Zealand dollar and the Australian dollar, Japanese Yen, the UK sterling, the US dollar and the Trade-Weighted Index respectively, using the ADF and Phillips-Perron unit root tests, Engle-Granger cointegration test and Johansen cointegration test. We use high frequency monthly data running from 1985 to 2001 for the analysis. In addition, this study analyzes the adjustment dynamics of real exchange rates of New Zealand through impulse response analysis and constructs confidence intervals for the half-life persistence estimates based on the simple and bootstrap methods. While the unit root tests and cointegration tests show mixed results for the long-run PPP, there is sufficient evidence that relative price levels help determine the value of the NZ dollar in the medium term. In particular, the point estimates and the confidence intervals of the half-life persistence estimates are found to be significantly lower than previous studies, 1-3 years compared with 3-5 years. Moreover, the half-life of PPP reversion between New Zealand and Australia is less than 1 year, which suggests that misalignments between NZ and AU dollar are not very persistent.
10-2004 SIMON MOWATT New Perspectives on the Supply-Chain and Consumer-Driven Innovation

This paper considers the interrelationship between innovation and the control of the supply-chain in consumer-driven industries. In particular the paper employs the concepts of Control and Innovation Networks as an analytical framework to examine the coordination of the supply-chain and inter-organisational collaboration. In-depth empirical evidence is provided by two cases industries: the UK supermarket and the UK consumer magazine publishing sector.

By separating the process of supply-chain integration and coordination from the control of supply-chain, motives for collaboration and conflict were explored. A detailed analysis is given of the innovation process in both sectors, and new patterns of inter-organisational cooperation are identified. Network Hubs were shown to be able to use their control of the critical information of consumer demand to drive innovation and extract value-adding activities.

In both cases examined the Innovation Hub was able to greatly extend the industry supplier base through the incorporation of external actors into the value system. This has widened the industry participation, but acted to change patterns of innovation within sectors. Consumer-driven Innovation Networks dependent on access to consumers through retail channels were found to be potentially vulnerable to retailer Control Networks.
11-2004 HELEN ANDERSON and JONATHAN MATHENY Paying Attention To The Construct Of SalienceIn Identity-related Literature and Beyond

This paper reviews the salience construct, proposing a definition of salience as a phenomenon of connection between a stimulus and a person. Our framing of the salience construct includes its elements, temporality, and several ontological perspectives of salience.

In answer to calls for clarity in the use of concepts in the identity-related literature, this framing is applied to Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. We find each theory unclear in its use of salience, the naming of the elements of salience and the ontological perspective of salience. The importance of gaining clarity in defining and using salience is the contribution to answering questions inherent to identity theories, namely 'Is an identity triggered by an object of salience, or does the active identity determine which objects of salience gain attention?’

Research propositions based on the proposed definition of salience and the results of the analysis are offered. The implications a precise definition of salience has for identity-related literature and micro-organisational theories, such as leadership and motivation, are briefly outlined.
12-2004 AARON GILBERT, ALIREZA TOURANI-RAD and TOMASZ WISNIEWSKI The Impact of Regulatory Change on Insider Trading Profitability: Some Early Evidence from New Zealand

This paper adds to the scant literature on the tightening of regulations and its impact on the profitability of insider trades by examining the effects of the recent enactment of the Securities Market Amendment Act 2002 in New Zealand. We investigate the abnormal returns around the date of insider transactions both before and after the introduction of this Act. We find that the number of insider transactions decreased just prior to the introduction of the Act; further we observe a marked reduction in profitability of directors. However, the difference between the pre and post-change returns lacks statistical significance.
13-2004 AARON GILBERT, ALIREZA TOURANI-RAD and TOMASZ WISNIEWSKI Do Insiders Crowd Out Analysts?

Both insiders and analysts are involved in the collection and dissemination of information to the market, roles which impact heavily on price efficiency and resource allocation. The differences between the two groups, however, result in a competitive relationship with analysts at a disadvantage as they face greater costs associated with information gathering. As a result they may choose not to participate in a one-sided competition. We employ transaction data to examine the impact of firm-year aggregate insider trading intensity on the level of analyst following. We find a negative relationship between insider trading intensity and analyst coverage. This result was driven by large blockholders suggesting that analysts are attracted to higher levels of information asymmetry from which they profit.
14-2004 AARON GILBERT, ALIREZA TOURANI-RAD and TOMASZ WISNIEWSKI Insiders and the Law: The Impact of Regulatory Change on Insider Trading

The impact of regulations in minimizing the detrimental effects of insider trading is unsettled. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the introduction of the Securities Market Amendment Act 2002 in New Zealand on several aspects of the market. After examining a sample of companies listed before and after the new laws introduction, we find strong evidence of a reduction in the cost of capital, bid-ask spreads and volatility accompanied by increases in liquidity, all as predicted. We conclude that the change in regulations has had a positive impact on the market.
15-2004 JULIE DOUGLAS Wages and Conditions of Clinical Coders in New Zealand. A report of surveys conducted in 1998 and 2004

This report reports on surveys on the wages and conditions of Clinical Coders in New Zealand’s public health sector undertaken in 1998 and 2004. Human Resource Managers in Crown Health Enterprises in 1998 and District Health Boards in 2004 were asked to provide information relating to the wages and conditions of the Clinical Coders they employed. There was a 100% participation rate from the 23 Crown Health Enterprises in 1998 and an 86% participation rate by District Health Boards in 2004. Overall, the surveys revealed that Clinical Coders have had some gains at the enterprise level of wage increases as to be expected, although these did not appear to be in line with inflation. Despite the apparent keenness by this occupational group for improved standardisation of wages, conditions and training, (in part the impetus for this research), there has been no evidence that any such substantial improvements have occurred over the six years
16-2005 GLEN OLIVER and PETER McGHEE In Search of Professional Identity: A Descriptive Study of New Zealand “Professional” Bodies’ Codes of Ethics

“Professional” representative bodies are increasingly turning to codes of ethics in order to define acceptable standards of behaviour. This study addresses a gap in academic literature by focusing on the codes of New Zealand professional bodies. The term profession has a number of different conceptualisations, which are explored along with the role of codes within the professions. Definitions of codes of ethics are reviewed. Codes from four New Zealand bodies are content analysed according to Cressey and Moore’s (1983) three-point typology: Policy area, Authority and Compliance. A number of differences are noted between the four codes, including area of focus, length, detail, sanctions and the overall utility of the codes in guiding behaviour. Implications for the bodies are discussed, most notably that some of the codes appear not to meet adequate professional standards for guiding ethical behaviour.
17-2005 PAUL WELLS The Supply of Accounting Graduates in New Zealand

Declining enrolments in accounting programmes in the United States of America and United Kingdom have been well documented for over a decade and it is suggested that accounting as a career choice is becoming less attractive to domestic students. An Australian study supported this conclusion but further noted that the trend is being masked by an increasing level of enrolments in these programmes by international students. Collectively these studies highlight the vulnerability of accounting programmes to fluctuation in the recruitment and enrolment of international students and further, a potential decline in the number of domestic graduates seeking employment in the accounting profession.

This study reports the collection and analysis of data from 8 of the 14 approved tertiary education institutions that provide a recognised academic programme to meet the CA requirements of the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants(NZICA).Its objectives are to identify graduation trends for the period 1997-2002 and to consider the impact of international student enrolment on these trends. The findings suggest that there have been significant fluctuations in the number of accounting graduates since 1997, with domestic graduate numbers rising between 1999 and 2001 and then declining in 2002.During this time the total number of business graduates has remained constant.The decline in graduate numbers coincides with the introduction of the four-year programme of study. As a consequence the findings reported here have implications for the tertiary education institutions, NZICA and employers.
18-2005 PAUL WELLS and PETER FIEGER Accounting: Perceptions of Influential High School Teachers in the USA and NZ

A decline in enrolments in Accounting programs in the United States of America has been well documented over the last decade. Some researchers have explained that this decline is in part due to the misinformation or lack of information about the nature of accounting and the duties performed by accountants.Other studies have found that a significant number of students make their career choice decisions while at high school and that teachers are influential in this decision making process. This study replicates a US study by surveying NZ high school teachers to compare their perceptions of the accounting profession to, engineering, law and medicine based on 24 attributes of a profession.The results from this study are contrasted to those from the US study.Our findings indicate that similar to the US, NZ high school teachers have a low opinion of accounting as a career option for university-bound high school students.This implies there are significant issues for educators and the profession including a possible mismatch between the requisite skills perceived by teachers and those sought by the profession.
19-2005 RACHEL MORRISON Testing for the Invariance of a Causal Model of Friendships at Work: An Investigation of Job Type and Needs

The relationship between workplace friendships and organisational outcomes were investigated. Employees from diverse industries responded to an Internet-based survey (n=445). A previously supported model of workplace relationships (Morrison, 2004) was cross-validated, confirming linkages between friendships at work and organisational outcomes. The model was invariant across groups reporting differing needs for affiliation, autonomy or achievement, but non-invariant across groups reporting occupying relatively less or more interdependent jobs. Results suggest that the interdependence of individuals’ jobs affects the salience of work friendships more than subjective needs.
20-2005 MARTIE-LOUISE VERREYNNE Strategy-Making Process and Firm Performance in Small Firms

This paper argues that individual small firms, just like large firms, place differing emphasis on strategy-making and may employ different modes of strategy-making. It offers a typology of the different modes of strategy-making that seem most likely to exist in small firms, and hypothesises how this typology relates to performance. It then describes the results of an empirical study of the strategy-making processes of small firms. The structural equation analysis of the data from 477 small firms with less than 100 employees indicates among other results that the simplistic, adaptive, intrapreneurial and participative modes of strategy-making exist in these SMEs. Of these modes, the simplistic mode exhibits the strongest relationship with firm performance.
21-2005 BART FRIJNS, AARON GILBERT and ALIREZA TOURANI-RAD Insider Trading, Regulation and the Components of the Bid-Ask Spread

Insiders pose a risk to providers of liquidity, who require compensation for this and consequentially widen spreads. In this paper we investigate the relationship between insider trading regulation and the cost of trading by decomposing the components of the spread before and after the enactment of strict new laws. We find a significant decrease in information asymmetry, which is mainly observed in illiquid and high pre-change information asymmetry companies. Results are robust to model specification. We also see a decrease in the contribution of information asymmetry to price volatility. Overall, our results may have implications for markets with similar characteristics.
22-2005 BELINDA LUKE and MARTIE-LOUISE VERREYNNE Exploring Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: Examining the Application of Strategic Entrepreneurship to SOEs

The purpose of this research is to elaborate on a model of entrepreneurship within the public sector. Case studies involving state-owned enterprises (SOEs) trace three examples of entrepreneurial ventures. A theme of strategic use of entrepreneurial action within these organisations emerges. We argue that these examples are representative of both a field of enquiry and a specific concept which has been termed “strategic entrepreneurship”. On the strength of the findings from this study we are able to draw two important conclusions. First, empirical support is found for the notion of “strategic entrepreneurship”, which is defined and explained in this paper. Second, incidences of strategic entrepreneurship are demonstrated in the SOEs, which extend the range of entrepreneurial types usually described in the public sector.
23-2005 MING-HUA LIU, DIMITRI MARGARITIS and ALIREZA TOURANI-RAD Monetary Policy Transparency and Pass-Through of Retail Interest Rates

This paper examines the degree of pass-through and adjustment speed of retail interest rates in response to changes in benchmark wholesale rates in New Zealand during the period 1994 to 2004. We consider the effect of policy transparency and financial structure in the transmission mechanism. New Zealand is the first OECD country to adopt a formal inflation targeting regime with specific accountability and transparency provisions. Policy transparency was further enhanced by a shift from quantity (settlement cash) to price (interest rate) operating targets in 1999. We find complete long-term pass-through for some but not all retail rates. Our results also show that the introduction of the Official Cash Rate (OCR) increased the pass-through of floating and deposit rates but not fixed mortgage rates. Overall, our results confirm that monetary policy rate has more influence on short-term interest rates and that increased transparency has lowered instrument volatility and enhanced the efficacy of policy.
24-2005 HARDJO KOERNIADI and ALIREZA TOURANI-RAD Accruals and Cash Flows Anomalies: Evidence from the New Zealand Stock Market

This paper investigates the presence of accruals and cash flows anomalies in the New Zealand stock market for the period of 1987 to 2003. There is insignificant evidence of accruals anomaly. We find, however, that the poor performance of the highest accruals firms contributes most to the positive hedge return. As earnings are positively associated with accruals, it seems that investors are misled by the high accruals in high earnings firms. Further test results based on discretionary accruals support this hypothesis. We also find strong evidence of cash flows anomaly during the sample period.
25-2006 CHRISTOPHER SELVARAJAH, EDWINA PIO and DENNY MEYER Assessment Preferences of MBA and MBus Students: A New Zealand Study

Assessment is often seen as a significant influencer of learning. Cooperative learning which encourages group work is viewed as a major contributor to the development of relevant workforce knowledge and skills, particularly in the context of an increasingly diverse demographic student population. This study seeks to explore the assessment preferences of MBA and MBus students in New Zealand through the use of a survey linking culture and educational preferences. It is hypothesized that the four variables – competition requirements, structure requirements, respect for education and motivation to study will have an influence on assessment preferences, but these relationships will be suppressed or mediated by attitudes to cooperative learning. Results indicate that the most preferred form of assessment is individual assignments with the least preferred being exams for all ethnicities. However, some ethnic differences in assessment preferences did surface and these have been explored. Implications for educators are discussed including the need to legitimize knowledge and traditions from many cultural realities.
26-2006 JEDRZEJ BIALKOWSKI, KATRIN GOTTSCHALK and TOMASZ WISNIEWSKI Stock Market Volatility around National Elections

This paper investigates a sample of 27 OECD countries to test whether national elections induce higher stock market volatility. It is found that the country-specific component of index return variance can easily double during the week around an Election Day, which shows that investors are surprised by the election outcome. Several factors, such as a narrow margin of victory, lack of compulsory voting laws, change in the political orientation of the government, or the failure to form a coalition with a majority of seats in parliament significantly contribute to the magnitude of the election shock. Our findings have important implications for the optimal strategies of risk-averse stock market investors and participants of the option markets.
27-2006 AARON GILBERT and ALIREZA TOURANI-RAD The Impact of Regulations on the Informational Basis of Insider Trading

This paper investigates a sample of 27 OECD countries to test whether national elections induce higher stock market volatility. It is found that the country-specific component of index return variance can easily double during the week around an Election Day, which shows that investors are surprised by the election outcome. Several factors, such as a narrow margin of victory, lack of compulsory voting laws, change in the political orientation of the government, or the failure to form a coalition with a majority of seats in parliament significantly contribute to the magnitude of the election shock. Our findings have important implications for the optimal strategies of risk-averse stock market investors and participants of the option markets.
28-2006 PHILIPPA WELLS Meridian Energy and Project Aqua: A Study in Stakeholder Identification and Salience

In 2004 Meridian Energy, a New Zealand State Owned Enterprise, announced its decision to cancel Project Aqua, a power generation scheme that would have involved the construction of six dams on the lower Waitaki river, in the South Island of New Zealand. The decision is interesting in terms of its implications for stakeholders who, as a consequence of transformation in the public sector, have arguably few formal avenues to pursue in challenging the decisions of managers of these enterprises. This paper applies a stakeholder identification/salience framework in exploring the position of, and strategies utilised by, those seeking identification and response from managers. A focus to this exploration is provided though reference to an important theme, that of the symbolic importance of the river – as location and as resource. The conclusion reached as a result of this exploration is that both those seeking recognition as stakeholders and decision-makers within organizations should be cognizant of the implications of socio-legal context on strategy and policy.
29-2006 AILEEN NAMING and NEVAN WRIGHT Performance Appraisal of Administrative Staff in a Tertiary Institution: Perception

There is little empirical evidence relating to how university administrative employees view the performance appraisal process. The aim of this paper was to investigate administrative staff perceptions and understanding of the appraisal system using AUT University (AUT) as a case study. Areas investigated included (1) how administrative staff viewed the process, (2) did it impact on their motivation, and (3) did it help or hinder career development. It was found that there was no evidence that the respondents wanted the process discontinued even though comments from those who had been through a Performance and Development Review (P&DR) and Formative Appraisal (FA) indicated a range of positive and negative experiences. Resulting from this study a number of recommendations are made.
30-2006 JEDRZEJ BIALKOWSK, KATRIN GOTTSCHALK and TOMASZ WISNIEWSKI Political Orientation of Government and Stock Market Returns

Prior research documented that U.S. stock prices tend to grow faster during Democratic administrations than during Republican administrations. This letter examines whether stock returns in other countries also depend on the political orientation of the incumbents. An analysis of 24 stock markets and 173 different governments reveals that there are no statistically significant differences in returns between left-wing and right-wing executives. Consequently, international investment strategies based on the political orientation of countries’ leadership are likely to be futile.
31-2007 MARGARET BLACKBURN AND PETER MCGHEE The Virtuous Entrepreneur: New Ventures and Human Flourishing

Entrepreneurship research in recent years has expanded to include the ethical dimension of new venture creation and various normative frameworks have been applied to the entrepreneurship role. Despite this, entrepreneurship is still widely viewed as a business phenomenon which bases its claim to be a key contributor to social good on economic grounds only. In this paper, the social good against which entrepreneurship success is measured is defined in terms of a broader notion of human flourishing derived from virtue ethics theory. Virtue ethics as a moral theory emphasises positive traits of character shown by habitual action which fit those who have them to lead good lives in terms of a particular notion of professional excellence. In this paper, the writers argue, with reference to virtue ethics, that new measures of success are needed for entrepreneurship, which take into account the key professional concerns, beliefs and features of entrepreneurship. The roles and responsibilities of entrepreneurs enable them to contribute to society in ways that go beyond economic achievements, thus achieving the broad goal of entrepreneurship, human empowerment through opportune innovation, risk-taking and creativity. Having described these specific roles and responsibilities and how they inform the development of a regulative ideal which influences moral purpose and action, the paper goes on to explore the question: what traits of character constitute the entrepreneur who will be well equipped to achieve success as defined? A range of traits which might contribute to entrepreneurial success such as creativity, courage and toughness are suggested and described. The entrepreneur who has these attributes will be an excellent practitioner: one who embodies qualities of character which contribute to the achievement of the proper goals of entrepreneurship.
32-2007 RACHEL MORRISON Enemies at Work

This study investigates the link between perceptions of negative workplace relationships and organisational outcomes. Respondents (n=412) spanned a wide range of occupations, industries and nationalities. Data were collected using an Internet based questionnaire. Results indicated that those with at least one negative relationship at work were significantly less satisfied, reported less organisational commitment, were part of less cohesive workgroups and were significantly more likely to be planning to leave their job.
33-2007 RACHEL MORRISON Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Workplace Friendships and Organisational Outcomes

The current study investigated gender differences in (a) perceived benefits of workplace friendships and (b) the relationship between friendship factors and organisational outcomes. Four hundred and forty-five respondents completed a questionnaire which asked them to describe the benefits they received from workplace friends, and which measured workplace friendship prevalence and opportunities, workgroup cohesion, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and intention to leave. Friendships at work were found to be significantly more strongly correlated with job satisfaction for men. In addition, women were significantly more likely than men to describe the benefits of workplace friendship in terms of social and emotional support, while men were more likely to focus on the benefits friends provided them in their career or in functional aspects of “getting the job done”. Findings are discussed in the context of other organisational and gender research.

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Last updated: 11 May 2009 2:04pm

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