You can include the words and ideas of other people in your writing in two ways:
Paraphrasing - change the exact words of the original (use this a lot)
Direct quotes - use the exact words of the original (use this a little)
Referencing in APA style
The APA referencing style has two components:
Details of the author and year each time you refer to a source
In the paragraphs of your writing
A formatted list of all the sources you refer to in your writing
At the end of your writing
1. In-text citations
An in-text citation:
Indicates that what you have just written is based on someone else’s work
Points the reader to the full information in your reference list
An in-text citation in APA style includes:
The family name of the author (eg, Junco)
The year of publication (eg, 2011)
A page number (eg, p. 42) – only when making a direct quote
For example: (Junco, 2011)
What is referencing?
Referencing is a standardised way of acknowledging in your writing where you found any words, ideas, etc that aren’t your own.
Referencing requires you to give enough detail about your sources (books, journal articles, reports, webpages, videos, conversations ...), so that your readers can find them.
At AUT, most faculties use the APA Referencing style (6th edition) to format references, but depending on your course, you may be required to use other referencing styles (eg, Chicago/Turabian, or APA Law Referencing).
Why do you need to use referencing?
In academic writing, you need to show:
What evidence you have for the points you make
Where that evidence comes from (ie, whose words and ideas you have used)
In university assignments:
Most of the ideas you write about will be from the readings you have done because:
The readings provide the evidence for the points you make in your writing
You have to reference whose ideas and words these are
Only a very small number of the ideas you write about are your own ones because:
Your lecturer needs to find out what you have learned during the paper
Referencing the readings helps your lecturer know what you have learned
Shows that you are honest about where the ideas and words that you use are from
Enables your lecturer to access any source that you have referenced so they can:
Read it themselves because they are interested in the topic
Check that you have used the original information correctly
Example of in-text citations in a journal article
Example of in-text citations in a sample student essay